ELECTRONICS KERALAM

Monday, January 4, 2021

ഫ്രിഡ്ജ് സോളാറിൽ പ്രവർത്തിപ്പിക്കാം

 ഫ്രിഡ്ജ് സോളാറിൽ പ്രവർത്തിപ്പിക്കാം

 രാജീവൻ കല്ലിശേരി


 
ഫ്രിഡ്ജ് ഒരു കിലോവാട്ട് സോളാർ ഇൻവേർട്ടറിൽ പ്രവൃത്തിപ്പിക്കാൻ എന്താണ് വഴി!

ഒരു സാധാരണ ചെറിയ ഫ്രിഡ്ജ് 135-150 വാട്ട് മാത്രമേ ഉള്ളൂവെങ്കിലും സ്റ്റാർട്ടിംഗിൽ ഒന്നര കിലോവാട്ട് വരെ പവറെടുക്കും. അതിനാൽ ഫ്രിഡ്ജ് 1 KW സോളാറിൽ പ്രവൃത്തിപ്പിച്ചാൽ സോളാർ ഇൻവെർട്ടർ PCU (Power Control Unit) ട്രിപ്പ് ആവും എന്നതാണ് അനുഭവം.

വീട്ടിൽ 1 KW Rooftop Solar system സ്ഥാപിച്ചത് 2013 ഒക്ടോബറിലായിരുന്നു. സോളാറില് നിന്നുള്ള പ്രതിദിന ഉല്പ്പാദനം ഏകദേശം 3- 3.5 യൂണിറ്റായിരുന്നു. അന്ന് ശരാശരി പ്രതിദിന വൈദ്യുതി ഉപഭോഗവും 3 - 3.5 യൂണിറ്റുതന്നെ. പ്രതിദിന ഉപഭോഗത്തിൽ പകുതിയോളം ഫ്രിഡ്ജിന് മാത്രമായി ആവശ്യമായതിനാൽ അത് സോളാറിൽ ഉപയോഗിക്കാതിരിക്കുന്നത് നഷ്ടവുമാണ്. ഫ്രിഡ്ജിന് മാത്രമായി ഒരു 3 KW ഇൻവേർട്ടർ വാങ്ങുന്നതിനെക്കുറിച്ചു വരെ ആലോചിച്ചു. അതിനും ഒരു 15000 രൂപയോളം വേണം; പിന്നെ ഊർജ്ജ നഷ്ടവും!

അങ്ങനെയാണ് പുതിയൊരു മാർഗ്ഗം കണ്ടെത്തിയത്. 80 രൂപ ചെലവിൽ പദ്ധതി പൂർത്തിയാവുകയും ചെയ്തു. അതിങ്ങനെ:

1. തുടക്കത്തിൽ കംപ്രസർ മോട്ടോർ കറങ്ങാത്തതിനാൽ വൈൻഡിംഗിന്റെ Resistance മാത്രമാണ് കറണ്ടിനെ പ്രധിരോധിക്കുന്നത്. അതിനാൽ കറണ്ട് സാധാരണയിലും 7-10 മടങ്ങ് കൂടുതലായിരിക്കും. കറങ്ങിക്കഴിഞ്ഞാൽ Inductive reactance കൂടെ വരുന്നതിനാൽ കറണ്ട് സാധാരണ നിലയിലേക്ക് കുറയും. അതിനാൽ തുടക്കത്തിൽ ഒരു അധിക പ്രതിരോധം ചേർക്കുക, പിന്നീട് കറക്കം കൂടുമ്പോൾ അതെടുത്തുകളയുക എന്നതാണ് വഴി.

2. Negative Temperature Coefficient (NTC) Thermistor ആണ് ഇതിനായി ഉപയോഗിച്ചത്. ഇത് തണുത്തിരിക്കുമ്പോൾ പ്രതിരോധം കൂടുതലായിരിക്കും. ഇതിലൂടെ വൈദ്യുതി പ്രവഹിച്ചാൽ സ്വയം ചൂടായി പ്രതിരോധം പൂജ്യത്തിനടുത്തേക്ക് വരും.

3. ഫ്രിഡ്ജിന്റെ ആർമേച്ചർ Resistance, Multimeter വച്ച് അളക്കുക. കംപ്രസറിൽ നിന്നും തെർമ്മോസ്റ്റാറ്റിലേക്ക് വരുന്ന ലൈനും ന്യൂട്രൽ വയറും തമ്മിലുള്ള Resistance അളന്നാൽ മതി. എനിക്കിത് 15 ohm ആണ് കിട്ടിയത്.

4. ഇതിന്റെ 4-5 മടങ്ങുള്ള NTC Thermistor ആവശ്യമാണ്. 60 ohm ന്റെ ഒറ്റ തെർമിസ്റ്റർ കിട്ടാത്തതിനാൽ 4.5, 5 ohm ന്റെ ഒരു array ആണ് ഞാനുപയോഗിച്ചത്. അങ്ങനെയാവുമ്പോൾ തണുക്കാനും എളുപ്പമായിരിക്കും.

5. കംപ്രസർ തെർമോസ്റ്റാറ്റുമായി ബന്ധിപ്പിക്കുന്ന വയർ മുറിച്ച് അതിനിടയിൽ തെർമിസ്റ്റർ ഫിറ്റു ചെയ്യുക. ഗ്യാരണ്ടിയുള്ള ഫ്രിഡ്ജിലാണ് ഞാൻ ചെയ്തത്; എന്തെങ്കിലും പറ്റിയാൽ എലി കടിച്ച് വയർ മറിഞ്ഞതാണെന്ന് പറഞ്ഞ് റിപ്പയർ ചെയ്യിക്കാലോ.😜

ഇത്രയും മതി. ഈ ഫ്രിഡ്ജ് ഇനി 1Kw Solar/inverterൽ ഓടിക്കാം. പ്രവർത്തനം ഇങ്ങനെ:

a) സ്റ്റാർട്ടിംഗിൽ കംപ്രസറിന്റെ 15 ohm ഉം തെർമിസ്റ്ററിന്റെ 60 ohmഉം കൂടി മൊത്തം 75 ഓം. അതായത് കറണ്ട് അഞ്ചിലൊന്നായി കുറയും.

b) ഓടിത്തുടങ്ങുമ്പോൾ തെർമിസ്റ്റർ ചൂടാവും; അതിന്റെ മൊത്തം റസിസ്റ്റൻസ് പൂജ്യത്തിനടുത്തെത്തും. അതായത് ലൈനിൽ കംപ്രസറിന്റെ 15 ohm മാത്രം; ഫ്രിഡ്ജ് സാധാരണ പോലെ ഓടും.

c) ഫ്രിഡ്ജിനകം ആവശ്യത്തിന് തണുത്തു കഴിഞ്ഞാൽ താനേ ഓഫാകും. അപ്പോൾ തെർമിസ്റ്ററിലൂടുള്ള വൈദ്യുതിയും നിലയ്ക്കും. അത് താനേ തണുക്കും.

d) ഫ്രിഡ്ജ് അടുത്ത സ്റ്റാർട്ടിന് തയ്യാറാവുമ്പോഴേക്കും തെർമ്മിസ്റ്റർ പഴയ നിലയിൽ (60 ohmൽ) എത്തിയിരിക്കും. കാര്യങ്ങൾ പിന്നെയും a) മുതൽ തുടങ്ങും.

2013 ഒക്ടോബർ മുതൽ ഇതുപയോഗിക്കുന്നു. 45 Ohmആണ് തെർമ്മിസ്റ്റർ ഉപയോഗിച്ചത്. ഇതുവരെ തകരാറൊന്നും സംഭവിച്ചിട്ടില്ല. ആയതിനാൽ മറ്റുള്ളവർക്കും പരീക്ഷിച്ചു നോക്കാമെന്നു കരുതുന്നു

Saturday, May 2, 2020

ഇലക്ട്രിക് വാഹനങ്ങൾക്കായി പുതിയ തരം ബാറ്ററി

ഇലക്ട്രിക് വാഹനങ്ങൾക്കായി പുതിയ തരം ബാറ്ററി


 ഇലക്ട്രിക് വാഹനങ്ങളില്‍ ലിഥിയം ബാറ്ററിക്ക് പകരം പുതിയ കണ്ടുപിടുത്തവുമായി ഇന്‍ഡ്യന്‍ കമ്പനി.

ലോഗ് 9 മെറ്റീരിയല്‍സ് എന്ന ബാംഗ്ളൂർ ബേസ്ഡ് കമ്പനി സ്വന്തമായി വികസിപ്പിച്ചെടുത്ത അലുമിനിയം ഫ്യുവല്‍ സെല്ലുകള്‍ (A.F.C) ഒരു ശരാശരി ലിഥിയം അയോണ്‍ ബാറ്ററിയേക്കാള്‍ അഞ്ച് മടങ്ങ് റേഞ്ച് നല്‍കും. ഇത് 30 ശതമാനും വില കുറഞ്ഞതാണ്. മാത്രമല്ല, ഇടയ്ക്കിടയ്ക്ക് ചാര്‍ജ്ജ് ചെയ്യേണ്ട ആവശ്യവുമില്ല.ഇലക്ട്രിക് വാഹനത്തിലേക്ക് മാറിയാലോ എന്നാലോചിക്കുമ്പോഴേ മനസ്സില്‍ വരുന്ന ഒരുപാട് ചോദ്യങ്ങളും സംശയങ്ങളുമുണ്ട്. അതില്‍ പ്രധാനം ബാറ്ററി റേഞ്ചിനെപ്പറ്റിയും സര്‍വീസിനെപ്പറ്റിയുമുള്ള ആശങ്കകളാണ്.
ചാര്‍ജ്ജ് തീര്‍ന്ന് വഴിയില്‍ കിടന്നാല്‍ എന്തുചെയ്യും? ചാര്‍ജ്ജ് ചെയ്യാനുള്ള സൗകര്യം നഗരങ്ങളില്‍ പോലും കുറവല്ലേ!?
ബാറ്ററിയുടെ റേഞ്ച് മാത്രമല്ല വിലയും പ്രശ്നമാണ്. ഇതിന് പുറമെയാണ് ലിഥിയം അയോണ്‍, ലിഥിയം ഫെറോ ഫോസ്ഫേറ്റ്, ലെഡ് ആസിഡ് ബാറ്ററികള്‍ എന്നിവ കാലാവധി കഴിഞ്ഞ ശേഷം ഉപേക്ഷിക്കുമ്പോഴുണ്ടാകുന്ന പരിസ്ഥിതി പ്രശ്നങ്ങള്‍.
ബെംഗളുരുവില്‍ നിന്നുള്ള ഈ നാനോ ടെക്നോളജി കമ്പനി ഈ പ്രശ്നങ്ങള്‍ക്കെല്ലാം പരിഹാരം കാണാനുള്ള ശ്രമത്തിലാണ്.join our electronics keralam,telegram group


ലോഗ് 9 മെറ്റീരിയല്‍സ് എന്ന കമ്പനി സ്വന്തമായി വികസിപ്പിച്ചെടുത്ത അലുമിനിയം ഫ്യുവല്‍ സെല്ലുകള്‍ (എ എഫ് സി) ഒരു ശരാശരി ലിഥിയം അയോണ്‍ ബാറ്ററിയേക്കാള്‍ അഞ്ച് മടങ്ങ് റേഞ്ച് നല്‍കും. ഇത് 30 ശതമാനം വില കുറഞ്ഞതാണ്. മാത്രമല്ല, ഇടയ്ക്കിടയ്ക്ക് ചാര്‍ജ്ജ് ചെയ്യേണ്ട ആവശ്യവുമില്ല.


ലിഥിയം അയോണ്‍ ബാറ്ററിയും എ എഫ് സിയും തമ്മിലുള്ള പ്രധാന വ്യത്യാസം ആദ്യത്തേത് ഒരു സ്റ്റോറേജ് സംവിധാനമാണ് എന്നതാണ്. രണ്ടാമത്തേത് ഊര്‍ജ്ജം ഉല്‍പാദിപ്പിക്കുന്ന സംവിധാനം ആണ് എന്നതാണ്. നമ്മള്‍ സാധാരണ ഇന്ധനം നിറയ്ക്കുന്നത് തീരാറാവുന്നതിന് മിനിറ്റുകള്‍ മുമ്പ് മാത്രമാണല്ലോ. അങ്ങനെയുള്ള സാധാരണ വാഹന ഉടമകളെക്കൂടി മനസ്സില്‍ കണ്ടുകൊണ്ടുള്ളതാണ് എ എഫ് സി,” ലോഗ് 9 മെറ്റീരിയല്‍സിന്‍റെ സ്ഥാപകന്‍ അക്ഷയ് സിംഘാള്‍ പറഞ്ഞു . ഇതിനൊക്കെ പുറമെ പുനരുപയോഗം ചെയ്യാവുന്നl ഊര്‍ജ്ജസ്രോതസ്സ് കൂടിയാണിത്. എ എഫ് സി-യില്‍ ഊര്‍ജ്ജം ഉല്‍പാദിപ്പിക്കുന്നതിന്‍റെ ഭാഗമായുണ്ടാകുന്ന അലുമിനിയംk ഹൈഡ്രോക്സൈഡ് തിരിച്ച് അലുമിനിയം ആക്കി മാറ്റാം, അതും സുസ്ഥിര ഊര്‍ജ്ജം ഉപയോഗിച്ചുതന്നെ. മാത്രമല്ല, അലുമിനിയം പൂര്‍ണ്ണമായും റീസൈക്കിള്‍ ചെയ്യാവുന്നതുമാണ്.
join ourelectronics keralam,telegram group

പുനരുപയോഗം ചെയ്യാവുന്ന ഊര്‍ജ്ജം ഉപയോഗിച്ച് ഞങ്ങള്‍ അലുമിനിയം ഉണ്ടാക്കുന്നു. അത് ഫ്യുവല്‍ സെല്ലിലേക്ക് പോകുന്നു. അത് അലുമിനിയം ഓക്സൈഡായി മാറുന്നു. ഇത് വീണ്ടും അലുമിനിയമായി മാറ്റുകയും ചെയ്യാം,” അക്ഷയ് വിശദമാക്കുന്നു.

⁉️പക്ഷേ, അവരെങ്ങനെ ഈയൊരു സാങ്കേതിക വിദ്യയിലേക്ക് എത്തി?
അടിസ്ഥാനപരമായി ലോഗ് 9 ഒരു ഗ്രാഫീന്‍ നിര്‍മ്മാണ കമ്പനിയാണ്. 2017 അവസാനത്തോടെ ഗ്രാഫീന്‍ കൊണ്ട് ലിഥിയം, ലെഡ് ആസിഡ് ബാറ്ററികളുടെ പ്രവര്‍ത്തനം മെച്ചപ്പെടുത്താന്‍ കഴിയുമോ എന്ന ആലോചന നടത്തി. ബാറ്ററികളുടെ പ്രവര്‍ത്തനത്തില്‍ ചെറിയൊരു പുരോഗതി ഉണ്ടാക്കാന്‍ കഴിഞ്ഞുവെങ്കിലും ചാര്‍ജ്ജിങ്ങുമായി ബന്ധപ്പെട്ട പല സാങ്കേതിക പ്രശ്നങ്ങളും കീറാമുട്ടിയായി നിന്നു.
ഇതിന് പുറമെ, മറ്റൊരു കാര്യം അവര്‍ മനസ്സിലാക്കി. ലിഥിയം അയോണ്‍, ലെഡ് ആസിഡ് ബാറ്റെറികള്‍ക്കായി ഇന്‍ഡ്യ ഇപ്പോള്‍ ചൈനയെയാണ് ആശ്രയിക്കുന്നത് എന്ന്. 2025-ഓടെ ഇന്‍ഡ്യ വ്യാപകമായി ഇലക്ട്രിക് വാഹനങ്ങളിലേക്ക് മാറുകയാണെങ്കില്‍ അത് കൊറോണ വൈറസ് മൂലം ചൈനയുമായുള്ള വ്യാപാരക്കമ്മി ഇനിയും കൂട്ടുകയേ ഉള്ളൂ.


ഇപ്പോള്‍ ഇന്‍ഡ്യ എണ്ണയ്ക്കായി വിദേശരാജ്യങ്ങളെ ആശ്രയിക്കുന്ന പോലെ ഇലക്ട്രിക് വെഹിക്കിള്‍ കാലത്ത് ലിഥിയം അയോണ്‍ ബാറ്ററിയുടെ കാര്യത്തിലും ഇതുതന്നെ സംഭവിക്കും.


ഇവിടെ കിട്ടുന്ന വസ്തുക്കള്‍ ഉപയോഗിച്ചുതന്നെ എളുപ്പത്തില്‍ ഉപയോഗിക്കാവുന്നതും പുനരുപയോഗം ചെയ്യാവുന്നതുമായ ഒരു പരിഹാരമാണ് ലോഗ് 9 തേടിയത്.

അത് അത്ര എളുപ്പമുള്ള ഒരു യാത്രയായിരുന്നില്ല.
ഗ്രാഫീന്‍ രംഗത്തുള്ള ഞങ്ങളുടെ വൈദഗ്ധ്യം പ്രയോജനപ്പെടുത്തി വെല്ലുവിളികളെയെല്ലാം നേരിടാന്‍ ഞങ്ങള്‍ക്ക് കഴിഞ്ഞു. 18 മാസത്തിനുള്ളില്‍ പൂര്‍ണ്ണമായും പ്രവര്‍ത്തനക്ഷമമായ ചെയ്യുന്ന ഒരു പ്രോട്ടോടൈപ്പ് ഞങ്ങള്‍ ഉണ്ടാക്കി. ഇത്തരത്തിലൊന്നുണ്ടാക്കാന്‍ ഇസ്രായേലിലെ ഫിനെര്‍ജി എട്ട് വര്‍ഷമെടുത്തിരുന്നു. എ എഫ് സി പ്രയോജനപ്പെടുത്തിയാല്‍ രാജ്യത്തുടനീളം ചാര്‍ജ്ജിങ് സംവിധാനം സ്ഥാപിക്കേണ്ട ആവശ്യവും വരുന്നില്ല,” അക്ഷയ് പറയുന്നു.electronics keralam,telegram group


ലിഥിയം അയോണ്‍ ബാറ്ററികളേക്കാള്‍ 30-40 ശതമാനം വിലക്കുറവായിരിക്കും ലോഗ് 9 സെല്ലുകള്‍ക്ക് എന്നാണ് കമ്പനി പറയുന്നത്. അഞ്ച് മടങ്ങ് റേഞ്ച് നല്‍കുന്നുവെന്നതും നിര്‍മ്മാണത്തിനായി വൈദ്യുതി ഉപഭോഗം കുറവാണ് എന്നതും മാത്രമല്ല ഇതിന്‍റെ പ്രത്യേകത.
ഈ ബാറ്ററിയില്‍ ഉപയോഗിക്കുന്ന വസ്തുക്കള്‍ വളരെ ലളിതമാണ് എന്നതും കൂടിയാണ്–അലുമിനിയം, വെള്ളം (ഇലക്ട്രോലൈറ്റ്), ഗ്രാഫീന്‍ (ഗ്രാഫൈറ്റില്‍ നിന്നാണ് ഇത് ഉണ്ടാക്കുന്നത്.) ഇവയെല്ലാം എളുപ്പത്തില്‍ കിട്ടുന്നതും വില കുറവുമാണ്. ബാറ്ററി സിസ്റ്റത്തിന്‍റെ ഡിസൈനും വളരെ ലളിതം. അതുകൊണ്ട് സങ്കീര്‍ണ്ണമായ ഫാക്ടറി പ്രക്രിയയൊന്നും വേണ്ട ഇതുല്‍പാദിപ്പിക്കാന്‍.
ഇലക്ട്രിക് വാഹനങ്ങളില്‍ എ എഫ് സി പോലുള്ള മെറ്റല്‍-എയര്‍ ബാറ്ററികള്‍ ആഗോളതലത്തില്‍ വേറെയും പരീക്ഷിക്കപ്പെട്ടിട്ടുണ്ട്. ഇസ്രായേല്‍ കമ്പനിയായ ഫിനെര്‍ജി (Phinergy) യും ടെസ്ലയുമൊക്കെ ഇത്തരം ബാറ്ററികളില്‍ ഗവേഷണം നടത്തുന്നുണ്ട്. എന്നാല്‍ ബാറ്ററികളിലുപയോഗിക്കുന്ന ലോഹം അലിഞ്ഞ് ഇല്ലാതാവുന്നതിന്‍റെ തോത് വളരെക്കൂടുതലാണ് എന്നതായിരുന്നു അവര്‍ നേരിട്ട പ്രധാന വെല്ലുവിളി.
ഗ്രാഫീന്‍ മെംബ്രെയ്ന്‍ ഉപയോഗിക്കുക വഴി ഈ ശോഷണത്തോത് കുറയ്ക്കാന്‍ ലോഗ് 9-ന് കഴിഞ്ഞു എന്നുവേണം കരുതാന്‍. “ഈ മെംബ്രെയ്ന്‍ പുറത്തേക്ക് ലീക്ക് ചെയ്യുന്ന വെള്ളം തടഞ്ഞുനിര്‍ത്തുന്നു. അതേസമയം ഓക്സിജനെ സെല്ലിനകത്തേക്ക് തടസ്സമില്ലാതെ കടത്തിവിടുകയും ചെയ്യുന്നു. എന്നാല്‍ കാര്‍ബണ്‍ഡൈ ഓക്സൈഡിനെ അകത്തേക്ക് കടത്തുന്നുമില്ല,” അക്ഷയ് വ്യക്തമാക്കുന്നു.


 നിര്‍മ്മാണ കമ്പനികളുമായും ചര്‍ച്ച പുരോഗമിക്കുകയാണെന്ന് ലോഗ് 9 പറയുന്നു. നാലുമാസം കഴിയുന്നതോടെ ലൈവ് ട്രയല്‍ തുടങ്ങും. എ എഫ് സികള്‍ നിര്‍മ്മിക്കാന്‍ സര്‍ക്കാരിന്‍റെ പിന്തുണയും ഉറപ്പുനല്‍കിയിട്ടുണ്ടെന്ന് അക്ഷയ് പറയുന്നു.


എ എഫ് സി ജനകീയമാക്കാന്‍ പല മാര്‍ഗ്ഗങ്ങളും കമ്പനി ആലോചിക്കുന്നുണ്ട്. അലുമിനിയം നിര്‍മ്മാതാക്കളുമായും ഇന്ധനവിതരണക്കാരുമായുമൊക്കെ സഹകരിച്ചുവേണം അതിനൊരു വഴി കണ്ടെത്താനെന്ന് കമ്പനി മനസ്സിലാക്കുന്നു.


ഇപ്പോഴുള്ള പെട്രോള്‍-ഡീസല്‍-സി എന്‍ ജി പമ്പുകളുടെ ശൃംഖലയിലൂടെ അലുമിനിയം കസ്സെറ്റുകള്‍ വിതരണം ചെയ്യാന്‍ കഴിഞ്ഞാല്‍ മാത്രമേ ഉപഭോക്താക്കള്‍ക്ക് എളുപ്പത്തില്‍ എ എഫ് സി ഉപയോഗിക്കാന്‍ കഴിയൂ. എന്നാല്‍ തുടക്കത്തില്‍ ഞങ്ങള്‍ ഈ ബാറ്ററികള്‍ വില്‍ക്കാന്‍ ഉദ്ദേശിക്കുന്നത് പവര്‍ ജനറേറ്ററുകളിലാണ്. ടെലികോം ടവറുകള്‍ പോലുള്ളവയുടെ ഡീസല്‍ ജനറേറ്ററുകള്‍ക്ക് പകരം എ എഫ് സി ഉപയോഗിക്കാം,” അക്ഷയ് പറയുന്നു.
ലോഗ് 9-ന്‍റെ പദ്ധതികള്‍ വിജയിക്കുകയാണെങ്കില്‍ അത് സുസ്ഥിര ഊര്‍ജ്ജരംഗത്ത് രാജ്യത്ത് പുതിയൊരു ഉണര്‍വ്വ് നല്‍കുമെന്ന് പ്രതീക്ഷിക്കാം.
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Sunday, March 1, 2020

201 ഹോബി സര്‍ക്യൂട്ടുകള്‍



201 ഹോബി സര്‍ക്യൂട്ടുകള്‍
The first thing you will want to know is: HOW DOES A TRANSISTOR WORK?

Diagram "A" shows an NPN transistor with the legs covering the symbol showing the name for each lead.
The transistor is a "general purpose" type and and is the smallest and cheapest type you can get. The number on the transistor will change according to the country where the circuit was designed but the types we refer to are all the SAME.
Diagram "B" shows two different "general purpose" transistors and the different pinouts. You need to refer to data sheets or test the transistor to find the correct pinout.
Diagram "C" shows the equivalent of a transistor as a water valve. As more current (water) enters the base, more water flows from the collector to the emitter.
Diagram "D" shows the transistor connected to the power rails. The collector connects to a resistor called a LOAD and the emitter connects to the 0v rail or earth or "ground." 
Diagram "E" shows the transistor in SELF BIAS mode. This is called a COMMON EMITTER stage and the resistance of the BASE BIAS RESISTOR is selected so the voltage on the collector is half-rail voltage.  In this case it is 2.5v.
To keep the theory simple, here's how you do it. Use 22k as the load resistance.
Select the base bias resistor until the measured voltage on the collector 2.5v. The base bias will be about 2M2.
This is how the transistor reacts to the base bias resistor:
The base bias resistor feeds a small current into the base and this makes the transistor turn on and create a current-flow though the collector-emitter leads.
This causes the same current to flow through the load resistor and a voltage-drop is created across this resistor. This lowers the voltage on the collector.
The lower voltage causes a lower current to flow into the base and the transistor stops turning on a slight amount. The transistor very quickly settles down to allowing a certain current to flow through the collector-emitter and produce a voltage at the collector that is just sufficient to allow the right amount of current to enter the base.
Diagram "F" shows the transistor being turned on via a finger. Press hard on the two wires and the LED will illuminate brighter. As you press harder, the resistance of your finger decreases. This allows more current to flow into the base and the transistor turns on harder.
Diagram "G" shows a second transistor to "amplify the effect of your finger" and the LED illuminates about 100 times brighter.
Diagram "H" shows the effect of putting a capacitor on the base lead. The capacitor must be uncharged and when you apply pressure, the LED will flash brightly then go off. This is because the capacitor gets charged when you touch the wires. As soon as it is charged NO MORE CURRENT flows though it. The first transistor stops receiving current and the circuit does not keep the LED illuminated. To get the circuit to work again, the capacitor must be discharged. This is a simple concept of how a capacitor works. A large-value capacitor will keep the LED illuminated for a longer period of time.
Diagram "I" shows the effect of putting a capacitor on the output. It must be uncharged for this effect to work. We know from Diagram G that the circuit will stay on when the wires are touched but when a capacitor is placed in the output, it gets charged when the circuit turns ON and only allows the LED to flash.
1. This is a simple explanation of how a transistor works. It amplifies the current going into the base about 100 times and the higher current flowing through the collector-emitter leads will illuminate a LED. 2. A capacitor allows current to flow through it until it gets charged. It must be discharged to see the effect again.
Read the full article HERE

RESISTOR COLOUR CODE
See resistors from 0.22ohm to 22M in full colour at bottom of this page and another resistor table  
                                     

TESTING AN unknown TRANSISTOR The first thing you may want to do is test an unknown transistor for COLLECTOR, BASE AND EMITTER. You also need to know if it is NPN or PNP.
You need a cheap multimeter called an ANALOGUE METER  - a multimeter with a scale and pointer (needle).
It will measure resistance values (normally used to test resistors) - (you can also test other components) and Voltage and Current. We use the resistance settings. It may have ranges such as "x10"  "x100"   "x1k"   "x10"
Look at the resistance scale on the meter. It will be the top scale.
The scale starts at zero on the right and the high values are on the left. This is opposite to all the other scales. .
When the two probes are touched together, the needle swings FULL SCALE and reads "ZERO." Adjust the pot on the side of the meter to make the pointer read exactly zero.
How to read:  "x10"  "x100"   "x1k"   "x10"
Up-scale from the zero mark is "1" 
When the needle swings to this position on the "x10" setting, the value is 10 ohms. When the needle swings to "1" on the "x100" setting, the value is 100 ohms.
When the needle swings to "1" on the "x1k" setting, the value is 1,000 ohms = 1k.

When the needle swings to "1" on the "x10k" setting, the value is 10,000 ohms = 10k.
Use this to work out all the other values on the scale.
Resistance values get very close-together (and very inaccurate) at the high end of the scale. [This is just a point to note and does not affect testing a transistor.]
Step 1   - FINDING THE BASE  and determining NPN or PNPGet an unknown transistor and test it with a multimeter set to "x10"
Try the 6 combinations and when you have the black probe on a pin and the red probe touches the other pins and the meter swings nearly full scale, you have an NPN transistor. The black probe is BASE
If the red probe touches a pin and the black probe produces a swing on the other two pins, you have a PNP transistor. The red probe is BASE
If the needle swings FULL SCALE or if it swings for more than 2 readings, the transistor is FAULTY.
 
Step 2   - FINDING THE COLLECTOR and EMITTERSet the meter to "x10k." 
For an NPN transistor, place the leads on the transistor and when you press hard on the two leads shown in the diagram below, the needle will swing almost full scale.


For a PNP transistor, set the meter to "x10k"  place the leads on the transistor and when you press hard on the two leads shown in the diagram below, the needle will swing almost full scale.
                                       
WORLDS SIMPLEST CIRCUIT
This is the simplest circuit you can get. Any NPN transistor can be used.
 


Connect the LED, 220 ohm resistor and transistor as shown in the photo.
Touch the top point with two fingers of one hand and the lower point with
fingers of the other hand and squeeze.
The LED will turn on brighter when you squeeze harder. Your body has resistance and when a voltage is present, current will flow though your body (fingers). The transistor is amplifying the current through your fingers about 200 times and this is enough to illuminate the LED.
                                       

FINDING THE NORTH POLE
The diagrams show that a North Pole will be produced when the positive of a battery is connected to wire wound in the direction shown. This is Flemmings Right Hand Rule and applies to motors, solenoids and coils and anything wound like the turns in the diagram.

                                    
These two circuits will flash a LED very bright and consume less than 2mA average current. The second circuit allows you to use a high power NPN transistor as the driver if a number of LEDs need to bee driven. The second circuit is the basis for a simple motor speed control.
See note on 330k in Flashing Two LEDs below.

                       
FLASHING TWO LEDS
These two circuits will flash two LEDs very bright and consume less than 2mA average current. They require 6v supply. The 330k may need to be 470k to produce flashing on 6v as 330k turns on the first transistor too much and the 10u does not turn the first transistor off a small amount when it becomes fully charged and thus cycling is not produced.

                                     
1.5v LED FLASHER
This will flash a LED, using a single 1.5v cell. It may even flash a white LED even though this type of LED needs about 3.2v to 3.6v for operation.
The circuit takes about 2mA but produces a very bright flash.

 
                                      
LED on 1.5v SUPPLY
A red LED requires about 1.7v before it will start to illuminate - below this voltage - NOTHING! This circuit takes about 12mA to illuminate a red LED using a single cell, but the interesting feature is the way the LED is illuminated.
The 1u electrolytic can be considered to be a 1v cell.
(If you want to be technical: it charges to about 1.5v - 0.2v loss due to collector-emitter = 1.3v and a lost of about 0.2v via collector-emitter in diagram B.)
It is firstly charged by the 100R resistor and the 3rd transistor (when it is fully turned ON via the 1k base resistor). This is shown in diagram "A."  During this time the second transistor is not turned on and that's why we have omitted it from the diagram. When the second transistor is turned ON, the 1v cell is pulled to the 0v rail and the negative of the cell is actually 1v below the 0v rail as shown in diagram "B."
The LED sees 1.5v from the battery and about 1v from the electrolytic and this is sufficient to illuminate it. Follow the two voltages to see how they add to 2.5v.
 

                                     
3v WHITE LED FLASHER
This will flash a white LED, on 3v supply and produce
a very bright flash. The circuit produces a voltage higher than 5v if the LED is not in circuit but the LED limits the voltage to its characteristic voltage of 3.2v to 3.6v.   The circuit takes about 2mA an is actually a voltage-doubler (voltage incrementer) arrangement.
Note the 10k charges the 100u. It does not illuminate the LED because the 100u is charging and the voltage across it is always less than 3v. When the two transistors conduct, the collector of the BC557 rises to rail voltage and pulls the 100u HIGH. The negative of the 100u effectively sits just below the positive rail and the positive of the electro is about 2v higher than this. All the energy in the electro is pumped into the LED to produce a very bright flash.
                                     
BRIGHT FLASH FROM FLAT BATTERY
This circuit will flash a white LED, on a supply from 2v to 6v and produce a very bright flash. The circuit takes about 2mA and old cells can be used. The two 100u electros in parallel produce a better flash when the supply is 6v.


                                       
DUAL 3v WHITE LED FLASHER
This circuit alternately flashes two white LEDs, on a 3v supply and produces a
very bright flash. The circuit produces a voltage higher than 5v if the LED is not in circuit but the LED limits the voltage to its characteristic voltage of 3.2v to 3.6v.   The circuit takes about 2mA and is actually a voltage-doubler (voltage incrementer) arrangement.
The 1k charges the 100u and the diode drops 0.6v to prevent the LED from starting to illuminate on 3v. When a transistor conducts, the collector pulls the 100u down towards the 0v rail and the negative of the electro is actually about 2v below the 0v rail. The LED sees 3v + 2v and illuminates very brightly when the voltage reaches about 3.4v.  All the energy in the electro is pumped into the LED to produce a very bright flash.
                                     
DUAL 1v5 WHITE LED FLASHER
This circuit alternately flashes two white LEDs, on a 1.5v supply and produces a
very bright flash. The circuit produces a voltage of about 25v when the LEDs are not connected, but the LEDs reduce this as they have a characteristic voltage-drop across them when they are illuminated. Do not use a supply voltage higher than 1.5v.  The circuit takes about 10mA.
The transformer consists of 30 turns of very fine wire on a 1.6mm slug 6mm long, but any ferrite bead or slug can be used. The number of turns is not critical.
The 1n is important and using any other value or connecting it to the positive line will increase the supply current.
Using LEDs other than white will alter the flash-rate considerably and both LEDs must be the same colour. 
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DANCING FLOWER
This circuit was taken from a dancing flower.
A motor at the base of the flower had a shaft up the stem and when the microphone detected music, the bent shaft made the flower wiggle and move.
The circuit will respond to a whistle, music or noise.

 
                                 
WHITE LINE FOLLOWER
This circuit can be used for a toy car to follow a white line. The motor is either a 3v type with gearing to steer the car or a rotary actuator or a servo motor.
When equal light is detected by the photo resistors the voltage on the base of the first transistor will be mid rail and the circuit is adjusted via the 2k2 pot so the motor does not receive any voltage. When one of the LDR's receives more (or less) light, the motor is activated. And the same thing happens when the other LDR receives less or more light.
                                         
LED DETECTS LIGHT
All LEDs give off light of a particular colour but some LEDs are also able to detect light. Obviously they are not as good as a device that has been specially made to detect light; such as solar cell, photocell, photo resistor, light dependent resistor, photo transistor, photo diode and other photo sensitive devices.
A green LED will detect light and a high-bright red LED will respond about 100 times better than a green LED, but the LED in this position in the circuit is classified as very high impedance and it requires a considerable amount of amplification to turn the detection into a worthwhile current-source.
All other LEDs respond very poorly and are not worth trying.
The accompanying circuit amplifies the output of the LED and enables it to be used for a number of applications.
The LED only responds when the light enters the end of the LED and this makes it ideal for solar trackers and any time there is a large difference between the dark and light conditions. It will not detect the light in a room unless the lamp is very close.
                                   
12v RELAY ON 6V SUPPLY
This circuit allows a 12v relay to operate on a 6v or 9v supply. Most 12v relays need about 12v to "pull-in" but will "hold" on about 6v. The 220u charges via the 2k2 and bottom diode. When an input above 1.5v is applied to the input of the circuit, both transistors are turned ON and the 5v across the electrolytic causes the negative end of the electro to go below the 0v rail by about 4.5v and this puts about 10v across the relay.Alternatively you can rewind a 12v relay by removing about half the turns.
Join up what is left to the terminals. Replace the turns you took off, by connecting them in parallel with the original half, making sure the turns go the same way around
                                   
MAKE TIME FLY!
Connect this circuit to an old electronic clock mechanism and speed up the motor 100 times!
The "motor" is a simple "stepper-motor" that performs a half-rotation each time the electromagnet is energised. It normally takes 2 seconds for one revolution. But our circuit is connected directly to the winding and the frequency can be adjusted via the pot.
Take the mechanism apart, remove the 32kHz crystal and cut one track to the electromagnet. Connect the circuit below via wires and re-assemble the clock. 
As you adjust the pot, the "seconds hand" will move clockwise or anticlockwise and you can watch the hours "fly by" or make "time go backwards."
The multivibrator section needs strong buffering to drive the 2,800 ohm inductive winding of the motor and that's why push-pull outputs have been used. The flip-flop circuit cannot drive the highly inductive load directly (it upsets the waveform enormously).
From a 6v supply, the motor only gets about 4v due to the voltage drops across the transistors. Consumption is about 5mA.HOW THE MOTOR WORKS
The rotor is a magnet with the north pole shown with the red mark and the south pole opposite.
The electromagnet actually produces poles. A strong North near the end of the electromagnet, and a weak North at the bottom. A strong South at the top left and weak South at bottom left. The rotor rests with its poles being attracted to the 4 pole-pieces equally.Voltage must be applied to the electromagnet around the correct way so that repulsion occurs. Since the rotor is sitting equally between the North poles, for example, it will see a strong pushing force from the pole near the electromagnet and this is how the motor direction is determined. A reversal of voltage will revolve the rotor in the same direction as before. The design of the motor is much more complex than you think!!

The crystal removed and a "cut track" to the coil. The 6 gears must be re-fitted for the hands to work.

A close-up of the clock motorAnother clock motor is shown below. Note the pole faces spiral closer to the rotor to make it revolve in one direction. What a clever design!!
                                       
CONSTANT CURRENT SOURCE
This circuit provides a constant current to the LED. The LED can be replaced by any other component and the current through it will depend on the value of R2. Suppose R2 is 560R. When 1mA flows through R2,  0.56v will develop across this resistor and begin to turn on the BC547. This will rob the base of BD 679 with turn-on voltage and the transistor turns off slightly. If the supply voltage increases, this will try to increase the current through the circuit. If the current tries to increase, the voltage across R2 increases and the BD 679 turns off more and the additional voltage appears across the BD 679. 
If R2 is 56R, the current through the circuit will be 10mA. If R2 is 5R6, the current through the circuit will be 100mA - although you cannot pass 100mA through a LED without damaging it.
                                       
ON - OFF VIA MOMENTARY PUSH-BUTTONS
- see Also Push-ON  Push-OFF (in 101-200 Circuits)
This circuit will supply current to the load RL. The maximum current will depend on the second transistor. The circuit is turned on via the "ON" push button and this action puts a current through the load and thus a voltage develops across the load. This voltage is passed to the PNP transistor and it turns ON. The collector of the PNP keeps the power transistor ON.
To turn the circuit OFF, the "OFF" button is pressed momentarily. The 1k between base and emitter of the power transistor prevents the base floating or receiving any slight current from the PNP transistor that would keep the circuit latched ON.
The circuit was originally designed by a Professor of Engineering at Penn State University. It had 4 mistakes. So much for testing a circuit!!!!  It has been corrected in the circuit on the left.
                                     
SIREN
This circuit produces a wailing or siren sound that gradually increases and decreases in frequency as the 100u charges and discharges when the push-button is pressed and released.  In other words, the circuit is not automatic. You need to press the button and release it to produce the up/down sound. 
                                       
TICKING BOMB
This circuit produces a sound similar to a loud clicking clock. The frequency of the tick is adjusted by the 220k pot.
The circuit starts by charging the 2u2 and when 0.65v is on the base of the NPN transistor, it starts to turn on. This turns on the BC 557 and the voltage on the collector rises. This pushes the small charge on the 2u2 into the base of the BC547 to turn it on more.
This continues when the negative end of the 2u2 is above 0.65v and now the electro starts to charge in the opposite direction until both transistors are fully turned on. The BC 547 receives less current into the base and it starts to turn off. Both transistors turn off very quickly and the cycle starts again.
                                     
SIGNAL INJECTOR
This circuit is rich in harmonics and is ideal for testing amplifier circuits. To find a fault in an amplifier, connect the earth clip to the 0v rail and move through each stage, starting at the speaker. An increase in volume should be heard at each preceding stage. This Injector will also go through the IF stages of radios and FM sound sections in TV's.
                                        
LIGHT ALARM - 1
This circuit operates when the Light Dependent Resistor receives light.
When no light falls on the LDR, its resistance is high and the transistor driving the speaker is not turned on.
When light falls on the LDR its resistance decreases and the collector of the second transistor falls. This turns off the first transistor slightly via the second 100n and the first 100n puts an additional spike into the base of the second transistor. This continues until the second transistor is turned on as hard as it can go. The first 100n is now nearly charged and it cannot keep the second transistor turned on. The second transistor starts to turn off and both transistors swap conditions to produce the second half of the cycle.
                                        
LIGHT ALARM - 2
This circuit is similar to Light Alarm -1 but produces a louder output due to the speaker being connected directly to the circuit.
The circuit is basically a high-gain amplifier that is turned on initially by the LDR and then the 10n keeps the circuit turning on until it can turn on no more.
The circuit then starts to turn off and eventually turns off completely. The current through the LDR starts the cycle again.
 
                                       

LIGHT ALARM - 3 (MOVEMENT DETECTOR)
This circuit is very sensitive and can be placed in a room to detect the movement of a person up to 2 metres from the unit.
The circuit is basically a high-gain amplifier (made up of the first three transistors) that is turned on by the LDR or photo Darlington transistor. The  third transistor charges the 100u via a diode and this delivers turn-on voltage for the oscillator.  The LDR has equal sensitivity to the photo transistor in this circuit.

                                     
SOUND TRIGGERED LED
This circuit turns on a LED when the microphone detects a loud sound.
The "charge-pump" section consists of the 100n, 10k, signal diode and 10u electrolytic. A signal on the collector of the first transistor is passed to the 10u via the diode and this turns on the second transistor, to illuminate the LED.
 
                                       
SIMPLE LOGIC PROBE
This circuit consumes no current when the probe is not touching any circuitry. The reason is the voltage across the green LED, the base-emitter junction of the BC557, plus the voltage across the red LED and base-emitter junction of the BC547 is approx: 2.1v + 0.6v + 1.7v + 0.6v = 5v and this is greater than the supply voltage.
When the circuit detects a LOW, the BC557 is turned on and the green LED illuminates. When a HIGH (above 2.3v) is detected, the red LED is illuminated.
                                        
LOGIC PROBE with PULSE
This circuit has the advantage of providing a PULSE LED to show when a logic level is HIGH and pulsing at the same time. It can be built for less than $5.00 on a piece of matrix board or on a small strip of copper clad board if you are using surface mount components. The probe will detect a HIGH at 3v and thus the project can be used for 3v, 5v and CMOS circuits.

                                        
CONTINUITY TESTER
This circuit has the advantage of providing a beep when a short-circuit is detected but does not detect the small voltage drop across a diode. This is ideal when testing logic circuits as it is quick and you can listen for the beep while concentrating on the probe. Using a multimeter is much slower.

                                        
TRAIN THROTTLE
This circuit is for model train enthusiasts. By adding this circuit to your speed controller box, you will be able to simulate a train starting slowly from rest.
Remove the wire-wound rheostat and replace it with a 1k pot. This controls the base of the BC547 and the 2N3055 output is controlled by the BC547. The diodes protect the transistors from reverse polarity from the input and spikes from the rails.
 
                                        
GUITAR FUZZ
The output of a guitar is connected to the input of the Fuzz circuit. The output of this circuit is connected to the input of your amplifier.
With the guitar at full volume, this circuit is overdriven and distorts. The distorted signal is then clipped by the diodes and your power amp amplifies the Fuzz effect.
                                        
 TH TESTER
This is a simple "staircase" circuit in which the LEDs come on as the resistance between the probes decreases.
When the voltage on the base of the first transistor sees 0.6v + 0.6v + 0.6v = 1.8v, LED1 comes on. LEDs 1&2 will come on when the voltage rises a further 0.6v. The amount of pressure needed on the probes to produce a result, depends on the setting of the 200k pot.
 



                                     
FOG HORN
When the push-button is pressed, the 100u will take time to charge and this will provide the rising pitch and volume. When the push-button is released, the level and pitch will die away. This is the characteristic sound of a ship's fog horn.
                                      
HEADS OR TAILS
When the push-button is pressed, the circuit will oscillate at a high rate and both LEDs will illuminate. When the push button is released, one of the LEDs will remain illuminated. The 50k is designed to equalise the slightly different values on each half of the circuit and prevent a "bias."
                                   
DYNAMIC MICROPHONE AMPLIFIER
This circuit takes the place of an electret microphone. It turns an ordinary mini speaker into a very sensitive microphone.
Any NPN transistors such as BC 547 can be used. The circuit will work from 3v to 9v. It is a common-base amplifier and accepts the low impedance of the speaker to produce a gain of more than 100.
                                       
SCR WITH TRANSISTORS
The SCR in circuit A produces a 'LATCH.' When the button is pressed, the LED remains illuminated.
The SCR can be replaced with two transistors as shown in circuit B.
To turn off circuit A, the current through the SCR is reduced to zero by the action of the OFF button. In circuit B the OFF button removes the voltage on the base of the BC547. The OFF button could be placed across the two transistors and the circuit will turn off.

                                         

HEE HAW SIREN
The circuit consists of two multivibrators. The first multi-vibrator operates at a low frequency and this provides the speed of the change from Hee to Haw. It modifies the voltage to the tone multivibrator, by firstly allowing full voltage to appear at the bottom of the 220R and then a slightly lower voltage when the LED is illuminated.

                                       
MICROPHONE PRE-AMPLIFIER
This circuit consists of two directly coupled transistors operating as common-emitter amplifiers.
The ratio of the 10k resistor to the 100R sets the gain of the circuit at 100.
                                        
HARTLEY OSCILLATOR
The Hartley Oscillator is characterised by an LC circuit in its collector. The base of the transistor is held steady and a small amount of signal is taken from a tapping on the inductor and fed to the emitter to keep the transistor in oscillation. 
The transformer can be any speaker transformer with centre-tapped primary.
The frequency is adjusted by changing the 470p.
                                     
COLPITTS OSCILLATOR
The Colpitts Oscillator is characterised by tapping the mid-point of the capacitive side of the oscillator section. The inductor can be the primary side of a speaker transformer. The feedback comes via the inductor.
                                        
PHASESHIFT OSCILLATOR
The Phaseshift Oscillator is characterised by 3 high-pass filters, creating a 180° phase shift.
The output is a sinewave. Take care not to load the output - this will prevent reliable start-up and may stop the circuit from oscillating.
Reduced the 3k3 load resistor if the load prevents the circuit oscillating. See Phase Shift Oscillator in second section of 200 Transistor Circuits for a better design.
                                        
DOOR-KNOB ALARM
This circuit can be used to detect when someone touches the handle of a door. A loop of bare wire is connected to the point "touch plate" and the project is hung on the door-knob. Anyone touching the metal door-knob will kill the pulses going to the second transistor and it will turn off. This will activate the "high-gain" amplifier/oscillator.
The circuit will also work as a "Touch Plate" as it does not rely on mains hum, as many other circuits do.
                                         
SIMPLE MOTOR SPEED CONTROL
This circuit is better than reducing the RPM of a motor via a resistor. Firstly it is more efficient. And secondly it gives the motor a set of pulses and this allows it to start at low RPM.  It's a simple Pulse-Width circuit or Pulse-Circuit.


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                                         to Index
MOTOR SPEED CONTROL - Circuit 3

                                         
ELECTRONIC DRUMS
The circuit consists of two "twin-T" oscillators set to a point below oscillation. Touching a Touch Pad will set the circuit into oscillation.
Different effects are produced by touching the pads in different ways and a whole range of effects are available.
The two 25k pots are adjusted to a point just before oscillation.
A "drum roll" can be produced by shifting a finger rapidly across adjacent ground and drum pads.
 
                                        
LIGHT EXTENDER
This circuit is a Courtesy Light Extender for cars. It extends the "ON" time when a door is closed in a car, so the passenger can see where he/she is sitting.
When the door switch is opened, the light normally goes off immediately, but the circuit takes over and allows current to flow because the 22u is not charged and the first BC 547 transistor is not turned ON. This turns on the second BC547 via the 100k and the BD679 is also turned on to illuminate the interior light.
The 22u gradually charges via the 1M and the first BC547 turns on, robbing the second BC547 of "turn-on" voltage and it starts to turn off the BD679.
The 1N4148 discharges the 22u when the door is opened.
                                       
20 WATT FLUORO INVERTER
This circuit will drive a 40 watt fluoro or two 20-watt tubes in series.
The transformer is wound on a ferrite rod 10mm dia and 8cm long.
The wire diameters are not critical but our prototype used 0.61mm wire for the primary and 0.28mm wire for the secondary and feedback winding.
Do not remove the tube when the circuit is operating as the spikes produced by the transformer will damage the transistor.
The circuit will take approx 1.5amp on 12v, making it more efficient than running the tubes from the mains. A normal fluoro takes 20 watts for the tube and about 15 watts for the ballast.
                                   
6 to 12 WATT FLUORO INVERTER
This circuit will drive a 40 watt fluoro or two 20-watt tubes in series but with less brightness than the circuit above and it will take less current.
2 x 20 watt tubes = 900mA to 1.2A  and 1 x 20 watt tube 450mA to 900mA depending on pot setting. 
The transformer is wound on a ferrite rod 10mm dia and 8cm long. The wire diameter is fairly critical and our prototype used 0.28mm wire for all the windings. 
Do not remove the tube when the circuit is operating as the spikes produced by the transformer will damage the transistor. The pot will adjust the brightness and vary the current consumption. Adjust the pot and select the base-bias resistor to get the same current as our prototype. Heat-sink must be greater than 40sq cm. Use heat-sink compound.
                                         

GOLD DETECTOR
see also:
 BFO METAL DETECTOR in "100 IC circuits"
SIMPLE BFO METAL LOCATOR in
"100 IC circuits"
This very simple circuit will detect gold or metal or coins at a distance of approx 20cm - depending on the size of the object.
The circuit oscillates at approx 140kHz and a harmonic of this frequency is detected by an AM radio.
Simply tune the radio until a squeal is detected.
When the search coil is placed near a metal object, the frequency of the circuit will change and this will be heard from the speaker. 
The layout of the circuit is shown and the placement of the radio.
 

The TRUTH about Metal (GOLD) Detectors.
A Gold Detectors club in the US created a challenge with 12 members with skills ranging from 12 months detection to over 25 years. They used 5 different detectors to find 30 different items, hidden in sand and under pieces of cardboard.
The results were these: All detectors performed  almost equally but the interpretation of the beeps, sounds and readings on the detector were
quite often mis-read and the winner was a member with 1 year experience.
The moral of the story is to dig for anything that is detected as it may not be a "ring-pull."

With these findings you can clearly use a very simple, cheap, detector and get results equal to the most expensive equipment.
The only thing you have to remember is this: You need the right frequency for the type of soil to cancel out the effects of minerals etc.
That's why there is a range of frequencies from 6kHz to 150Hz.
All the other modes of producing and injecting the pulse add only a very small improvement to the detection process.  
The energy put into the injecting pulse also has an influence of the depth of detection.

 
                                       

PHASER GUN
This is a very effective circuit. The sound is amazing. You have to build it to appreciate the range of effects it produces. The 50k pot provides the frequency of the sound while the switch provides fast or slow speed.

                                        

IC RADIO
This circuit contains an IC but it looks like a 3-leaded transistor and that's why we have included it here.
The IC is called a "Radio in a Chip" and it contains 10 transistors to produce a TRF (tuned Radio Frequency) front end for our project.
The 3-transistor amplifier is taken from our SUPER EAR project with the electret microphone removed.
The two 1N 4148 diodes produce a constant voltage of 1.3v for the chip as it is designed for a maximum of 1.5v.
The "antenna coil" is 60t of 0.25mm wire wound on a 10mm ferrite rod. The tuning capacitor can be any value up to 450p.

                                      

5-TRANSISTOR RADIO
If you are not able to get the ZN414 IC, this circuit uses two transistors to take the place of the chip.

                                        

AUTOMATIC LIGHT
This circuit automatically turns on a light when illumination is removed from the LDR. It remains ON for the delay period set by the 2M2 pot.
The important feature of this circuit is the building blocks it contains - a delay circuit and Schmitt Trigger. These can be used when designing other circuits.

                                         

5-LED CHASER
The LEDs in this circuit produce a chasing pattern similar the running LEDs display in video shops.
In fact the effect is called: "Running Hole." All transistors will try to come on at the same time when the power is applied, but some will be faster due to their internal characteristics and some will get a different turn-on current due to the exact value of the 22u electrolytics. The last 22u will delay the voltage-rise to the base of the first transistor and make the circuit start reliably. It is very difficult to see where the hole starts and that's why you should build the circuit and investigate it yourself. The circuit can be extended to any number of odd stages.

                                      
MAKING 0-1Amp meter for the BENCH POWER SUPPLY

The item in the photo is called a "Movement." A movement is a moving coil with a pointer and no resistors connected to the leads.
Any Movement can be converted to an ammeter without any mathematics.
Simply solder two 1R resistors (in parallel) across the terminals of any movement and connect it in series with an ammeter on the output of the Bench Power Supply. The second ammeter provides a reference so you can calibrate the movement. Connect a globe and increase the voltage.
At 500mA, if the pointer is "up scale" (reading too high) add a trim-resistor. In our case it was 4R7. 
The three shunt resistors can be clearly seen in the photo. Two 1R and the trim resistor is 4R7.
You can get a movement from an old multimeter or they are available in electronics shops as a separate item. The sensitivity does not matter. It can be 20uA or 50uA FSD or any sensitivity.

                                      
MAKING A ZENER DIODESometimes a zener diode of the required voltage is not available. Here are a number of components that produce a characteristic voltage across them. Since they all have different voltages, they can be placed in series to produce the voltage you need. A reference voltage as low as 0.65v is available and you need at least 1 to 3mA through the device(s) to put them in a state of conduction (breakdown).
                                        
12v TRICKLE CHARGER
The 12v Trickle Charger circuit uses a TIP3055 power transistor to limit the current to the battery by turning off when the battery voltage reaches approx 14v or if the current rises above 2 amp. The signal to turn off this transistor comes from two other transistors - the BC557 and BC 547.
Firstly, the circuit turns on fully via the BD139 and TIP3055. The BC557 and BC 547 do not come into operation at the moment. The current through the 0.47R creates a voltage across it to charge the 22u and this puts a voltage between the base and emitter of the BC547. The transistors turn on slightly and remove some of the turn-on voltage to the BD139 and this turns off the TIP3055 slightly.
This is how the 2 amp max is created.
As the battery voltage rises, the voltage divider made up of the 1k8 and 39k creates a 0.65v between base and emitter of the BC557 and it starts to turn on at approx 14v. This turns on the BC 547 and it robs the BD136 of "turn-on" voltage and the TIP3055 is nearly fully turned off.
All battery chargers in Australia must be earthed. The negative of the output is taken to the earth pin.

                                       
1.5v to 10v INVERTER
This very clever circuit will convert 1.5v to 10v to take the place of those expensive 9v batteries and also provide a 5v supply for a microcontroller project.
But the clever part is the voltage regulating section. It reduces the current to less than 8mA when no current is being drawn from the output. With a 470R load and 10v, the output current is 20mA and the voltage drop is less than 10mV. The pot will adjust the output voltage from 5.3v to 10v.

                                     
5v REGULATED SUPPLY FROM 3V
This circuit will produce a 5v regulated output from 2 cells (3v). The output current is limited to 50mA  but will be ideal for many microcontroller circuits.
The output voltage is set to 5v by the 3k9 and 560R resistors, making up a voltage divider network.

                                        
9v SUPPLY FROM 3V
You can replace a 9v battery with this circuit.
The output is about 10.4v on no load and 9.6v @30mA .
The advantage is the voltage stays over 9v for the life of the cells.
A normal 9v battery drops to 7v very quickly.
The output voltage is set to 9-10v by the 6k8 and 390R resistors. The 470R gives the circuit an idling current of about 20mA and the spikes are about 75mV.
By increasing the 470R, the quiescent current decreases but the voltage drops more when the current is 30mA.

                                       
27MHz TRANSMITTER
The transmitter is a very simple crystal oscillator. The heart of the circuit is the tuned circuit consisting of the primary of the transformer and a 10p capacitor. The frequency is adjusted by a ferrite slug in the centre of the coil until it is exactly the same as the crystal. The transistor is configured as a common emitter amplifier. It has a 390R on the emitter for biasing purposes and prevents a high current passing through the transistor as the resistance of the transformer is very low.
The "pi" network matches the antenna to the output of the circuit. See full description in 27MHz Links article.
                                        

27MHz RECEIVER

The 27MHz receiver is really a transmitter. It's a very weak transmitter and delivers a low level signal to the surroundings via the antenna. When another signal (from the transmitter) comes in contact with the transmission from the receiver it creates an interference pattern that reflects down the antenna and into the first stage of the receiver.
The receiver is a super-regenerative design. It is self-oscillating (or already oscillating) and makes it very sensitive to nearby signals. See full description in 27MHz Links article.

                                        
27MHz TRANSMITTER WITHOUT A CRYSTAL
A 27MHz transmitter without a crystal. When a circuit does not have a crystal, the oscillator is said to be "voltage dependent" or "voltage controlled" and when the supply voltage drops, the frequency changes.
If the frequency drifts too much, the receiver will not pick up the signal. For this reason, a simple circuit as shown is not recommended. We have only included it as a concept to show how the 27MHz frequency is generated. It produces a tone and this is detected by a receiver.
 See full description in 27MHz Links article.
                                     

27MHz TRANSMITTER WITH SQUARE-WAVE OSCILLATORThe circuit consists of two blocks. Block 1is a multivibrator and this has an equal mark/space ratio to turn the RF stage on and off. Block 2 is an RF oscillator. The feedback to keep the stage operating is provided by the 27p capacitor. The frequency-producing items are the coil (made up of the full 7 turns) and the 47p air trimmer. These two items are called a parallel tuned circuit. They are also called a TANK CIRCUIT as they store energy just like a TANK of water and pass it to the antenna. The frequency of the circuit is adjusted by the 47p air trimmer. See full description in 27MHz Links article.

                                    

27MHz RECEIVER-2This circuit matches with the 27MHz Transmitter with Square-wave Oscillator.   See full description on Talking Electronics website: 27MHz Links article.
The receiver frequency is fixed. The transmitter is adjusted to suit the receiver. The 3-27p trimmer is adjusted for maximum gain (10p trimmer and 5p6 in our case) and this is a critical adjustment.
The base-emitter junction of the first BC547 sets 0.7v (as it is heavily turned on by the 10k) on the base of the oscillator Q1, and this is fixed. Q1 is very lightly turned on (due to the emitter resistor), and this makes it very sensitive when it is oscillating. Any 27MHz signal from the surroundings will upset the oscillator and any tone in the signal will be passed to the stages for amplification. The coil is 13 turns. It can be replaced with 11 turns of 0.25mm wire on 3mm dia slug 7mm long. Although the original Russian product worked very well, our prototype did not have very good sensitivity. The circuit was very difficult to set-up.
Note: When making the 27uH inductor and checking its value on an inductance meter; if the meter does not read low values accurately, put two inductors in series. Measure the first inductor, say 100uH. The two inductors in series will be 127uH as inductors combine just like resistors in series!  The result is the addition of the individual values.

                                       

WALKIE TALKIENearly all the components in the 4-transistor circuit are used for both transmitting and receiving. This makes it a very economical design. The frequency-generating stage only needs the crystal to be removed and it becomes a receiver. Next is a three transistor directly coupled audio amplifier with very high gain. The first transistor is a pre-amplifier and the next two are wired as a super-alpha pair, commonly called a Darlington pair to drive the speaker transformer.  See full description in 27MHz Links article.

                                         
27MHz TRANSMITTER - 2 CHANNEL
This circuit does not use a crystal but has a clever feature of using the two push buttons to turn the circuit on when it is required to transmit.
The frequency of the multivibrator is determined by the value of resistance on the base of each transistor. The multivibrator is driven directly from the supply with the forward button and via a 150k for the reverse frequency.
The receiver requires a 1kHz tone for forward and 250Hz for reverse.
 See full description in 27MHz Links article.
                                         to Index
27MHz TRANSMITTER - 4 CHANNEL
This circuit uses the same number of components as the 2-Channel circuit above but has 4 channels.
The frequency of the multivibrator is determined by the value of resistance on the base of each transistor.
A 4 channel receiver has been designed by talking Electronics using a PIC12F628 micro to detect the different frequencies.
See P4 of:
2 Digit Up/Down Counter (see left index on Talking Electronics website).
2 Digit Up/Down Counter  has the receiver section.A = 500Hz   B = 550Hz   C = 660Hz  D = 1kHz
                                       
303MHz TRANSMITTER
The transmitter circuit is made up of two building blocks - the 303MHz RF oscillator and the 32kHz crystal controlled oscillator to generate a tone so the receiver does not false-trigger.  
The 303MHz oscillator consists of a self-oscillating circuit made up of the coil on the PC board and a 9p (9 puff) capacitor. See full description in Wireless Doorbell article.
                                      

Type: Gain: Vbe Vce Current Case
2SC1815 NPN 100 1v 50v 150mA
2SC3279 NPN 140 to
600
@0.5A
0.75v 10v 2amp
BC337
BC338
NPN 60
@300mA
0.7v 45v
25v
800mA
BC547
BC548
BC549
NPN   70
@100mA
0.7v 45v
30v
30v 
100mA
BC557 PNP 45v 100mA
BD139 NPN   70-100
@150mA
0.5v 80v 1.5A
BD140 PNP 70-100
@150mA
0.5v 80v 1.5A
2SCxxx
8050 NPN 10v 1.5A
8550 PNP 10v 1.5A
9012 PNP 500mA
9013 NPN 1v 20v 500mA
9014 NPN 100mA
9015 PNP 100mA
9018 NPN   700MHz 15v 50mA
                                         

The 1/10th watt resistors used in this circuit, compared with 0.25watt resistors.
 


 5 TRANSISTOR WALKIE TALKIE - 1This walkie talkie circuit does not have a crystal or speaker transformer, with the board measuring just 3cm x 4cm and using 1/10th watt resistors, it is one of the smallest units on the market, for just $9.50 to $12.00. The wires in the photo go to the battery, speaker, call-switch and antenna. The most difficult component in the circuit to duplicate is the oscillator coil. See the photo for the size and shape. The coil dia is 5mm and uses 0.25mm wire. The actual full-turn or half turn on the coil is also important. Almost all 5 transistor walkie talkies use this circuit or slight variations. See the article: 27MHz Transmitters for theory on how these transmitters work - it is fascinating.
                                       

 5 TRANSISTOR WALKIE TALKIE - 2Here is another walkie talkie circuit, using slightly different values for some of the components.  See the article: 27MHz Transmitters for theory on how these transmitters work.

                                      

WALKIE TALKIE with LM386Here is a more up-to-date version of the walkie talkie, using an LM 386 amplifier IC to take the place of 4 transistors.

                                     
HEARING AID  1.5v SUPPLY
This simple circuit will detect very faint sounds and deliver them to an 8 ohm earpiece. The circuit is designed for 1.5v operation.
                                         
HEARING AID  with PUSH PULL OUTPUT
This circuit will detect very faint sounds and deliver them to an 8 ohm earpiece. It is designed for 3v operation.
                                       

HEARING AID  with
CONSTANT VOLUME
This is a very handy circuit as it provides constant volume.  It is designed for 3v operation.

                                      

SOLAR ENGINE

This circuit is called Type-1 SE. Low current from a solar cell is stored in a large capacitor and when a preset voltage-level is reached, the energy from the capacitor is released to a motor.
For full details on how the circuit works and how to modify it, see:
 
                                     

SUN EATER-I
An improved design over Solar Engine circuit above. It has a clever 2-transistor self-latching arrangement to keep the circuit ON until the voltage drops to 1.5v. The circuit turns on at 2.8v. This gives the motor more energy from the electrolytic at each "pulse." For full details on how the circuit works and how to modify it, see:

                                         

SOLAR PHOTOVOREThe green LEDs cause the Solar Engine on the opposite side to fire and the
Solar Photovore turns toward the light source. The motors are two pager "vibe" motors with the weights removed.  The 100k pot on the "head" balances the two Solar Engines. If you cannot get the circuit to work with green LEDs, use photo-transistors.  For full details on how the circuit works and how to modify it, see:

                                       
 SIGNAL BY-PASSThis circuit allows a class-A amplifier to drive a low impedance speaker and has a low quiescent current. The 220R in series with the speaker limits the "wasted" current to about 20mA max as the transistor is generally biased at mid-voltage. However the transistor will be almost directly driving the speaker when a signal is being processed and the only limitation is the ability of the 220R to discharge the 100u during each cycle.
The circuit is called a signal by-pass as the signal by-passes the 220R and drives the speaker directly (via the 100u).

                           
 
SOUND-TO-LIGHTThe LED illuminates when the piezo diaphragm detects sound.
Some piezo diaphragms are very sensitive and produce 100mV when whistling at 50cm. Others produce 1mV. You must test them with a CRO.
The sensitivity of the diaphragm will determine the sensitivity of the circuit.

                      

The transmitter is built on a small length of PC board, cut into lands with a file. The photo clearly shows how all the components are mounted and how the board is fitted into a toothbrush holder. The flashing LED shows the unit is ON and serves to control the beep-beep-beep of the circuit.  The flashing LED is not an ordinary LED.
You cannot use an ordinary LED. It must be a FLASHING LED as this type of LED has a built-in resistor and a chip to make the LED flash.
The circuit does not make the LED flash, the LED makes the circuit beep-beep-beep due to the on-off from the chip inside the LED.
One constructor used an ordinary LED - and BANG! That's why we are the first in the world to create a symbol for a flashing LED. The extra bar represents the chip inside the LED.

This is the professional unit

                            TRANSMITTER CIRCUIT




                            RECEIVER CIRCUIT
The receiver circuit is a high-gain amplifier and produces constant background noise so the slightest magnetic field can be detected.
The 10mH choke can be any value but the largest number of turns on the core is best.
The mini speaker can be a 16R earpiece but these are not as loud as a mini speaker.
Quiescent current is 50mA so the on-off switch can be a push-button.
CABLE TRACER
Why pay $100 for a cable tracer when you can build one for less than $10.00!  This type of tracer is used by telephone technicians, electricians and anyone laying, replacing or wiring anything, using long cables, such as intercoms, television or security.
Our cable tracer consists of two units. One unit has a multivibrator with an output of 4v p-p at approx 5kHz. This is called the transmitter. The other unit is a very sensitive amplifier with capacitive input for detecting the tone from the transmitter and a magnetic pickup for detecting magnetic lines of force from power cables carrying 240v. This is called the receiver. The circuit also has an inductive loop, made up of a length of wire,  to pick up stray signals from power cables, so if one detector does not detect the signal, the other will. Our circuit is nothing like that in the professional unit shown above.
                                       
LED TORCH with  1.5v SUPPLY
This simple circuit will illuminate a super-bright white LED to full brightness with 28mA from a 1.5v cell. The LED is 20,000mcd (20cd  @ 15° viewing angle) and has an output of approx 1lumen.
The transformer is wound on a small ferrite slug 2.6mm dia and 6mm long. It is made from F29 ferrite material as the circuit operates at a high frequency (100kHz to 500kHz).
The efficiency of the circuit revolves around the fact that a LED will produce  a very high output when delivered pulses, but the overall current will be less than a steady DC current.
BC 337 has a collector-emitter voltage of 45v. (BC338 has 25v collector-emitter voltage rating.) The voltage across the transistor is no more than 4v as the LED absorbs the spikes. Do not remove the LED as the spikes from the transformer will damage the transistor.  
The circuit will drive 1 or 2 while LEDs in series.
 
                                       
WHITE LED FLASHER
This circuit will flash a super-bright white LED from a 1.5v cell.
The transformer is wound on a small ferrite slug 2.6mm dia and 6mm long as shown in a project above.
The circuit uses the zener characteristic of the reverse-base-emitter junction of a BC 547 to pass current and flash the LED.

 
             
LED TORCH with ADJUSTABLE BRIGHTNESS
This circuit will drive up to 3 high-bright white LEDs from a 3v supply. The circuit has a pot to adjust the brightness to provide optimum brightness for the current you wish to draw from the battery.
The transformer is wound on a ferrite slug 2.6mm dia and 6mm long as shown in the LED Torch with 1.5v Supply project.
This circuit is a "Boost Converter" meaning the supply is less than the voltage of the LEDs. If the supply is greater than the voltage across the LEDs, they will be damaged.
 
                                       
BUCK CONVERTER for  HIGH-POWER LED   170mA
This circuit is slightly simpler than above but it does not have the feature of being able to adjust the drive-current.
The inductor is the same as the photo above but has a feedback winding of 15 turns.
Connect the circuit via a 220R resistor and if the LED does not illuminate, reverse the feedback winding.
The driver transistor will need a small heatsink.
                                    
BUCK CONVERTER for  HIGH-POWER LED  210mA
This circuit will drive 1 high-power white LED from a 12v supply and is capable of delivering 210mA.
The driver transistor is BD 139 and the details of the inductor are shown above.
The voltage across the LED is approx 3.3v - 3.5v
The driver transistor will need a small heatsink.
The 2R2 can be increased if a lower drive-current is required.
                                      

Designed 12-8-2011
BUCK CONVERTER for  HIGH-POWER LED  250mA - 1watt LED
This circuit will drive 1watt white LED from a 12v supply and is capable of delivering 300mA.
The driver transistor is BD 327 and the inductor is 70 turns of 0.25mm wire wound on the core of a 10mH inductor.
The voltage across the LED is approx 3.3v - 3.5v
The 1R is used to measure the mV across it.  300mV equals 300mA LED current.
The diode MUST be high speed. Non-highspeed diode increases current 50mA!
This circuit is the best design as it does not put peaks of current though the LED. Reduce 390R slightly to increase max. current.
                                      

AUTOMATIC GARDEN LIGHT
This circuit automatically turns on and illuminates the LEDs when the solar panel does not detect any light. It switches off when the solar panel produces more than 1v and charges the battery when the panel produces more than 1.5v + 0.6v = 2.1v

                                     
27MHz DOOR PHONE
This circuit turns a walkie talkie into a handy wireless door phone. It saves wiring and the receiver can be taken with you upstairs or outside, without loosing a call from a visitor.
A  5-Transistor walkie talkie can be used (see circuit above) and the modifications made to the transmitter and receiver are shown below:

THE TRANSMITTER
Only three sections of the transmit/ receive switch are used in the walkie talkie circuit and our modification uses the fourth section. Cut the tracks to the lands of the unused section so it can be used for our circuit.
There are a number of different printed circuit boards on the market, all using the same circuit and some will be physically different to that shown in the photo. But one of the sections of the switch will be unused.
Build the 2-transistor delay circuit and connect it to the walkie talkie board as shown. When the "push-to-talk" switch is pressed, the PC board will be activated as the delay circuit effectively connects the negative lead of the battery to the negative rail of the board for about 30 seconds.
The 100u gradually discharges via the 1M after the "press-to-talk" switch is released and the two transistors turn off and the current drops to less than 1 micro-amp - that's why the power switch can be left on. .
The transmitter walkie talkie is placed at the front door and the power switch is turned on. To call, push the "push-to-talk" switch and the "CALL" button at the same time for about 5 seconds. The circuit will activate and when the  "push-to-talk" switch is released, the circuit will produce background noise for about 30 seconds and you will hear when call is answered.
The  "push-to-talk" switch is then used to talk to the other end and this will activate the circuit for a further 30 seconds. If the walkie talkie does not have a "CALL" switch, 3 components can be added to provide feedback, as shown in the circuit below, to produce a tone.

THE RECEIVER
The receiver circuit needs modification and a 2-transistor circuit is added. This circuit detects the tone and activates the 3-transistor direct-coupled amplifier so that the speaker produces a tone.
The receiver circuit is switched on and the 2-transistor circuit we connect to the PC board effectively turns on the 3-transistor amplifier so that the quiescent current drops from 10mA to about 2-3mA. It also mutes the speaker as the amplifier is not activated. The circuit remains on all the time so it will be able to detect a "CALL." When a tone is picked up by the first two transistors in the walkie talkie, it is passed to the first transistor in our "add-on" section and this transistor produces a signal with sufficient amplitude to remove the charge on the 1u electrolytic. This switches off the second transistor and this allows the 3-transistor amplifier to pass the tone to the speaker. The operator then slides a switch called "OPERATE" to ON (down) and this turns on the 3-transistor amplifier. Pressing the "push-to-talk" switch (labelled T/R) allows a conversation with the person at the door. Slide the "OPERATE" switch up when finished.

The receiver walkie talkie with the 2-transistor "add-on"                                          

SCHMITT TRIGGER
A Schmitt Trigger is any circuit that has a fast change-over from one state to the other. In our case we have used 2 transistors to produce this effect and the third is an emitter-follower buffer.
The circuit will drive a LED or relay and the purpose is to turn the LED ON quickly at a particular level of illumination and OFF at a higher level. The gap between ON and OFF is called the HYSTERESIS GAP. SCHMITT TRIGGER-2The following circuit is a Schmitt Trigger made with NPN and PNP transistors:

                               

PHONE TAPE - 1
This simple circuit will allow you to tape-record a conversation from a phone line.
It must be placed between the plug on the wall and the phone.
The easiest way is to cut an extension lead. Wind 300-500 turns of 0.095mm wire on a plastic straw and place the reed switch inside. Start with 300 turns and see if the reed switch activates, Keep adding turns until the switch is reliable.
Fit two 100n capacitors to the ends of the winding for the audio.  Plug the Audio into "Mic" on tape recorder. Plug the remote into "remote" on the tape recorder and push "record." The tape recorder will turn on when the phone is lifted and record the conversation.

                                        

PHONE TAPE - 2
The circuit is turned off when the phone line is 45v as the voltage divider made up of the 470k, 1M and 100k puts 3.5v on the base of the first BC557 transistor. If you are not able to cut the lead to the phone, the circuit above will record a conversation from an extension lead. The remote plug must be wired around the correct way for the motor to operate.

                                      

PHONE
ALERT
Two circuits are available to show when a phone is being used. The first circuit must be placed between the socket on the wall and the phone - such as cutting into the lead and insert the bridge and diode.
But if you cannot cut the lead to the phone, you will have to add an extension cord and place the second circuit at the end of the line. You can also connect a phone at the end if needed.

                                       
THE LISTENER
This circuit consists of a 4-transistor amplifier and a 3-transistor "switch" that detects when the phone line is in use, and turns on the amplifier.  The voltage divider at the front end produces about 11v on the base of the first BC557 and this keeps the transistor off.  Switch the unit off when removed from the phone line.

                                        
PHONE TRANSMITTER - 1  see also Phone Bug (101-200 circuits)
The circuit will transmit a phone conversation to an FM radio on the 88-108MHz band. It uses energy from the phone line to transmit about 100metres. It uses the phone wire as the antenna and is activated when the phone is picked up. The components are mounted on a small PC board and the lower photo clearly shows the track-work.

                                        

PHONE TRANSMITTER -
2  see also Phone Bug (101-200 circuits)
The circuit will transmit a phone conversation to an FM radio on the 88-108MHz band. It uses energy from the phone line to transmit about 200metres. It uses the phone wire as the antenna and is activated when the phone is picked up.

                                      
PHONE TRANSMITTER - 3  see also Phone Bug (101-200 circuits)
This circuit has poor features but you can try it and see how it performs. It uses a PNP transistor and requires a separate antenna. It also has a supply of less than 1.9v, via the red LED. It would be better to put 2 LEDs in series to get a higher voltage. It is activated when the phone is picked up.

                                       
PHONE TRANSMITTER - 4                  see also Phone Bug (101-200 circuits)

     

The circuit was originally designed by me and presented in Poptronics magazine. It will transmit a phone conversation to an FM radio on the 88-108MHz band. It uses energy from the phone line to transmit about 200metres and uses the phone wire as the antenna. It is activated when the phone is picked up. The 22p air trimmer is shown as well as the 3 coils. Q2 is a buffer transistor between the oscillator and phone line and will provide a higher output than the previous circuits.
                                  
SWITCH DEBOUNCER and PULSE PRODUCERThus is one of the simplest and cleverest circuits ever produced (by Ron: http://www.zen22142.zen.co.uk/ronj/tg1.html
It produces a complete pulse every time the button is pressed. When the button is pressed, the output goes low for 3uS and produces a pulse to activate the clock-line of a chip. Our circuit produced 100% reliability and the cap takes 0.1sec to charge. 





All the resistor colours:

See 101-200 Circuits for resistors in parallel and series and
capacitors in parallel and series. You can make ANY VALUE by simply
connecting resistors in parallel or series. And the same with capacitors.